Mitochondria are essential eukaryotic double-membrane organelles. The convoluted mitochondrial inner membrane forms highly organized invaginations, termed cristae, which are crucial for energy metabolism. Cristae formation requires MICOS, a conserved hetero-oligomeric inner membrane complex. The MICOS core subunit MIC10 is a small transmembrane protein that oligomerizes through highly conserved glycine-rich motifs to control cristae formation. Sequence alignments show that D. melanogaster exhibits three MIC10-like proteins with different tissue-specific expression patterns. Here, we show that the ubiquitously expressed Dmel_CG41128/MINOS1b/DmMIC10b is the major MIC10 orthologue in flies. Loss of DmMIC10b disturbs cristae architecture of mitochondria and reduces the life-span and fertility of flies. Moreover, using fluorescence nanoscopy and electron tomography, we demonstrate that despite its high similarity to the MIC10 proteins from yeast and humans, DmMIC10b exhibits the unique ability to polymerize into elongated filaments upon overexpression. DmMIC10b filaments form bundles which accumulate in the intermembrane space and alter the shape of mitochondrial cristae membranes. We show that the formation of the filaments relies on conserved glycine and cysteine residues and is suppressed by co-expression of other MICOS proteins. Thereby, our findings provide new insights into the regulation of MICOS in flies.