Cookies Disclaimer

OK Our site saves small pieces of text information (cookies) on your device in order to deliver better content and for statistical purposes. You can disable the usage of cookies by changing the settings of your browser. By browsing our website without changing the browser settings you grant us permission to store that information on your device.


Bibliographic Data

  • Authors: Bahlmann, K.,Jakobs, S. and Hell, S.W.
  • Title: 4Pi-confocal microscopy of live cells
  • Journal: Ultramicroscopy
  • Volume: 87
  • Issue: 3
  • Volume: 155-164
  • DOI: 10.1016/s0304-3991(00)00092-9


By coherently adding the spherical wavefronts of two opposing lenses, two-photon excitation 4Pi-confocal fluorescence microscopy has achieved three-dimensional imaging with an axial resolution 3-7 times better than confocal microscopy. So far this improvement was possible only in glycerol-mounted, fixed cells. Here we report 4Pi-confocal microscopy of watery objects and its application to the imaging of live cells. Water immersion of 4Pi-confocal microscopy of membrane stained live Escherichia coli bacteria attains a 4.3-fold better axial resolution as compared to the best water immersion confocal microscope. The resolution enhancement results into a vastly improved three-dimensional representation of the bacteria. The first images of live biological samples with an all-directional resolution in the 190-280 nm range are presented here, thus establishing a new resolution benchmark in live-cell microscopy. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.